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Здравствуйте, дорогие читатели!

Считанные часы остаются до начала экзамена. На последней консультации мы с учащимися разбирали тему про зоопарки из открытого банка заданий ФИПИ. Год 2017 объявлен годом экологии в России, поэтому нам показалось уместным рассмотреть тему необходимости создания зоопарков в крупных и мелких городах.

В этой статье представлен примерный образец выполнения Задания 40 (Opinion Essay) ЕГЭ по английскому языку с пошаговым планом. Honestly speaking, it was written for you at the eleventh hour. (The idiom «at the eleventh hour» means «at the last possible moment or opportunity».)
ЕГЭ Задание 40

Opinion Essay: Zoo

Comment on the following statement.

Every city and every town should have a zoo.

What is your opinion?

Write 200 — 250 words.

Use the following plan:

  • Make the introduction (state the problem)
  • Express your personal opinion and give 2 – 3 reasons for your opinion
  • Express the opposing opinion and give 1 – 2 reasons for this opposing opinion
  • Explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
  • Make a conclusion restating your position

London Zoo 2010

Образец оформления текста сочинения

Приступая к выполнению этого задания, подумайте, необходимо ли иметь зоопарк в каждом населенном пункте нашей страны. Как Вы считаете, целесообразно ли содержание в клетках животных, и к каким последствиям это может привести.

Вступительная часть (the introduction)

Начните писать свое сочинение, перефразировав предложенный текст-стимул.

Например:

Lots of people in big cities, especially children, enjoy visiting zoos. At the same time those who live in small towns do not have such an opportunity. Is it really necessary to have a zoo in every corner of our big country? (42)

Основная часть сочинения, как правило, состоит из трех абзацев:

— express your personal opinion (ваша точка зрения + 2 – 3 аргумента)

— express the opposing opinion (точка зрения воображаемого оппонента + 1 – 2 аргумента)

— explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion (объясните, почему вы не согласны с точкой зрения оппонента, то есть приведите 1 – 2 контраргумента)

Итак, во вступлении вы сформулировали две противоположных точки зрения (обратите внимание, что здесь мы не выражаем своего личного мнения по проблеме!) Выберите тот тезис, который выражает вашу точку зрения, и приступайте к подбору аргументов и доводов в свою пользу.

Правила подбора аргументов:

  • Обратите внимание, что элементы «тезис – аргумент – довод» всегда должны быть логически связаны между собой
  • Нужно всегда выделять ключевые слова при анализе утверждений: ключевые слова в тезисе помогут подобрать аргументы, а ключевые слова в аргументе помогут правильно сформулировать довод.
  • Выделив ключевые слова в аргументе, составьте вопрос, проясняющий их содержание. Ответами на этот вопрос будут являться доводы.
  • При выборе аргументов «ЗА», не ссылайтесь на мнение оппонента (вы отстаиваете 
    СВОЮ
     позицию).

Воспользуйтесь схемой, которая поможет вам правильно подобрать аргументы:

ТЕЗИС                →               ПОТОМУ ЧТО               →               АРГУМЕНТ

АРГУМЕНТ         →               ПОЭТОМУ                     →               ТЕЗИС

Тезис автора:   

I am strongly convinced that there is no need to build zoos in every town or city.

Аргументы:
1) It is cruel to keep animals in unnatural environment.
2) To maintain the work of the zoo at the proper level, the local authorities should provide due financial security and professional staff.

3) The significant differences in climate conditions might harm animals.

Схема подбора доводов:

АРГУМЕНТ             →               ПОТОМУ ЧТО               →             ДОВОД

ДОВОД                  →               ПОЭТОМУ                     →             АРГУМЕНТ

Доводы:

1) It is cruel to keep animals in unnatural environment like small cages

because they do not have enough space to move around.  (22)


2) To maintain the work of the zoo at the proper level, the local authorities should provide due financial security and staff in order to take care of animals and their cubs. (31)

3) The significant differences in climate conditions might harm animals that is why it would be better if they lived in their natural habitat.  (24)

Аргументы оппонента:

  • A local zoo can encourage better treatment of wildlife.
  • People can save endangered animals of their area.
  • Local zoos can give lots of positive emotions for children who can enjoy a close contact with the animals. For example, they can feed and even stroke them.

Правила подбора контраргументов:

  • Нужно частично признать, что в аргументах оппонента есть здравый смысл
  • Выделите в доводах оппонента
    ключевые слова
    и на их основе нужно сформулировать противоположные по смыслу утверждения
  • Количество контрдоводов должно равняться количеству аргументов оппонента, то есть, если вы написали 2 аргумента в поддержку мнения условного оппонента, то должны представить 2 контрдовода (Очень важно!!!)
  • Нужно проверить, что контраргумент отвечает на вопрос, почему аргумент оппонента является неубедительным

 

Вывод (Make a conclusion)

В конце сочинения проверьте, достаточно ли отражена убедительность вашего тезиса в общем выводе (5й абзац). То есть, вам нужно еще раз повторить мысль, которая представляет ваше мнение по данному вопросу.

Например:

  1. All in all, I should say that to organize a zoo is a big responsibility which only a big city with the lasting contributions can provide.
  2. To sum it up, I reckon that it is not reasonable to set up a zoo in each settlement because they are not really for the animals’ benefit.

London Zoo 2010

Sample answer

Lots of people in big cities, especially children, enjoy visiting zoos. At the same time those who live in small towns do not have such an opportunity. Is it really necessary to have a zoo in every corner of our immense country? (42)

I am strongly convinced that there is no need to build zoos in every town or city. Firstly, small towns cannot set up adequate environment for wild animals that is why I find it cruel and unnatural to keep them in small cages.  (as they do not have enough space to move around) Secondly, the local authorities are most likely not able to provide due financial support and highly qualified staff to maintain the work of the zoo at the proper level. Moreover, the significant differences in climate conditions might harm exotic animals that are kept in the northern parts of the country. So, it would be better if they lived in their natural habitat.  (147)

However, there are people who have another point of view on this issue. They are sure that local zoos can encourage better treatment of wildlife.

Besides, they think that endangered animals of their area can be saved if they are brought to a local zoo. (192)

Nevertheless, I cannot fully agree with this statement because some tropical birds or animals such as giraffes, crocodiles and elephants cannot stand hard frosts and low temperatures so, they might feel bad. What is more, animals in captivity have always been a challenge to breed. (237)

All in all, I should say that to organize a zoo is a big responsibility which only a big city with the lasting contributions can provide. (263)

 

P.S. All photos provided in this article were made by the author during her visit to London in 2010.

If you like the article, share it with those who might need it.

Feel free to leave a comment in the commnet section below the article.

Good luck in your exam!

 

 

smashtrash.ru

Пример эссе для ЕГЭ по английскому языку с комментариями


Ранее я уже писала об общих требованиях к написанию эссе. Сейчас хотелось бы дать один пример такой работы с разбором.
Тема эссе:  Some people think that young people think about making money and career.

1.Сначала пишем введение. Оно должно включать в себя мысль, высказанную в задании, и прямо противоположную. Вы, как бы, вступаете в дискуссию со стороной, имеющей иную точку зрения. Здесь можно выучить наизусть начальные фразы, и пользоваться этим знанием на экзамене.

There are two opposite points of view on the attitude of young people towards money and career. Some people are sure that these two things are the main concern of modern youth. Others, on the contrary, argue that the interests of modern teenagers are various.

2. Далее, вы должны привести свою точку зрения, и дать, минимум, два аргумента, в пользу своей позиции.

As for me, I consider that young people, like all people in the world are different, and their interests, ambitions and attitude towards money and career differ too.

Some of my friends are going to study finance, economics or law, because they believe, that those professions will help them to find a good job and earn a lot of money.
Others are seeking for interesting occupations in life, which will make them happy, and not always they are well-paid. For example, traditionally, it’s difficult to enter Medical Academy. But, it’s a well-known fact, that a doctor is not a well-paid job in Russia. The same with teachers and scientists.

3. Затем вам следует изложить точку зрения ваших оппонентов, и объяснить, почему они пришли к такому выводу.

But many people suppose that modern teenagers have no other interests, besides making money and career. They see youngsters, fussing around and trying to earn or get as much money as possible. Also, there are a lot of talks around, how and where to get money. It producers the impression of only one issue, people are interested in: money.

Surely, money plays a great role in our life, but nevertheless, for majority of young people their real interests, such as painting, sport, sciences, and many others are much more important. I know it from my example, and from the example of my friends.

4. И, последнее, вывод. Он должен вытекать из всего вышесказанного.

In conclusion, I would like to say, that very few people are ready to work hard long hours, if a job is not interesting, you will not be able to do it. And most young people understand it very well, and do many different things, and have many different interests.

Пожалуйста, напишите мне, если эта статья показалась вам полезной или у вас есть вопросы по подготовке эссе для ЕГЭ.

Если вам или вашим детям предстоит сдать ЕГЭ, почитаете так же другие мои записи на тему этого экзамена, а так же разборы различных эссе.

alla-tutor.ru

Репетитор английского языка

#Эссе по английскому на тему отмены брака

Our modern world is unimaginable without marriage. However, there are lots of people who believe that it is not necessary.

In my opinion, marriage cannot be abolished. First of all, people who live together without registering their relationship do not have any spousal duties. They do not sign a marriage contract that sets the rights on the property which was obtained  when living together. Moreover, children in such families can remain without an official father. There can be some problems in the future connected with children's documents. Moreover, one of the parents – usually the father- doesn’t bother to provide for the children after leaving them.  His official status of a parent in this case will ensure that the children are paid alimony.

However, some people argue that marriage is not necessary for us . They claim there are many spouses who divorce . There can be not only psychological problems after a break-up but also a bother with documents and the painful process of sharing the common property. All of these don’t make the couple happy but rather makes them feel unfree.

As opposed to the above idea, I can say that cohabitation is not as durable as marriage.  Despite the fact that there are no problems with paperwork it can be much more difficult to get over  frequent break-ups.

To sum up, there are many opinions on this problem but I strongly  marrriage is mostly needed for the least protected part of humanity – children.  But since everyone has the right for freedom tt is up to  the couple to decide if their relations should be registered or not.


 #Эссе по английскому на тему необходимости услуг психологов

The services of psychologists are incredibly popular nowadays, especially in America, where almost every single person has a personal psychologist. But is it so useful, does humanity really need  such massive use of psychotherapy?

I am personally very skeptical about mass addiction to psychology. I can even say that it’s seems pathetic to me, when an adult man considers it possible to simply whine twice a week to another  grown-up man or woman. In the past people used to face much serious problems, than a classical psychologist’s patient is forced to deal with now. About a hundred years ago humanity had no knowledge about penicillin for example. One could possibly die as a result of only one tiny scratch. But back then people somehow lived their lives without complaining about plague, wars, lack of hygiene, hunger, poverty and such. And in the twentieth century people generally, who has more than moderate means, suddenly can’t breathe without complaining about their unhappy marriage, unfair treatment at work, high prices on gasoline, and so on. I don’t think that paying someone about two hundred dollars for listening to you and  nodding their head will help you to solve your problems.

Some people can disagree with me and say that people turn to specialists because they can have some kind of psychological trauma, which they can’t handle by themselves. In that case they will need professional psychological help to cure their  disease, so they could come back to normal life.

This statement is true indeed. But the problem is that not only psychologically unfit people go to psychological séances. Modern society is becoming more and more hypochondriac and paranoid, so in case of some little tiny problem they decide that they have depression and they need to see a psychologist. Because of   great demand for this kind of services, the  number of the so-called psychologists is growing every year,  but  the quality of their service is decreasing.

In the end I’d like to say that  the rave for   psychologists is  sad evidence  of how weack humanity is  nowadays. And I’m very glad, that in my country psychology isn’t so popular right now.

_______________________________________________________________

 #Эссе по английскому на тему жизнь в городе

It is common knowledge that life in a city has improved for the last fifty years. However,many think it to be  a controversial /disputable opinion

I, personally, think it has become better to live in a city. First of all, people who live in towns have a wide choice of activities nowadays. There are new kinds of sports, various educational and entertainment institutions and people have an opportunity to find things they like to do. Furthermore, there are many gadgets to facilitate  citizens’ lives. They can look up any necessary information in the Internet even in public places, read e-books and watch TV outside their homes  and just communicate with friends distantly – all of that thanks to wi-fi.

Some people, on the other hand, consider that life in a city has become worse. They claim that people in towns have become less sociable. In their opinion, gadgets have replaced real communications.

However, I disagree with the above idea. People can find friends online who share their  interests and meet somewhere in the town they live in. It is easy to find a person to talk to nowadays and I think that social networks only make communications better if they are used wisely.

In conclusion, it is a controversial issue and it is up to a person to decide if city life has changed for the better or not but I am strongly convinced that it has become much more interesting to live in cities.


 #Эссе по английскому на тему школьных поездок

It is a common belief that it is not necessary to go on school trips because they are a waste of time and money. Yet, there has been a dispute on this problem and many parents still encourage educational excursions.

In my opinion, school trips is a good way of learning about  something new. First of all, children are interested in visiting different places they have never been to. It is known that events full of emotions are very cognitive and children memorize more than usual. Moreover, there are lots of interesting cheap school trips which most people can afford. Furthermore, parents will not waste their money  because knowledge is the thing that cannot be too expensive.

However, some people argue that children do not need to go on school trips. They consider that most sciences cannot be learnt  anywhere but  in the classroom. That's why most excursions are useless. In their opinion, children tend to be unruly during an excursion which distracts them from guides’ lectures.  As a result most information passes by them.

As opposed to the above idea, I can say that  school trips should not replace classroom work and should be an additional activity for those who are interested in the subject. Seeing the object of studies with their own eyes schoolchildren can be inspired to study it more deeply and finally find a vacation for themselves.

To sum up, there are many opinions on this problem but I am strongly convinced that going on school trips is a good way of education. Everything depends on how professionally the trip is organized and on the budget allocated

_________________________________________________

 #Эссе по английскому на тему самоуправления школьников

Nowadays there is a heated debate about the role of students in school life. Some people think that teenagers should be allowed to have a say in discussions about school life, while others do not agree with this opinion.

From my point of view, students should take part in running their school. First of all, it will make them more independent and responsible, as well as helping them to develop indispensable problem-solving skills and teaching them to work in a team. Secondly, pupils are well aware of pros and cons of their school life, so their opinions should be considered to improve the existing system. Pupils can offer interesting and creative solutions on problems that school faces.

However, a lot of adults consider pupils too young to decide how school should be organized. Teachers and parents are convinced that adults have far more knowledge and experience and therefore they should make such important decisions.

I do not agree with the above-given view because children should the right to express their opinion on school life which will make them more mature and help them gain important social skills.

To sum up, I strongly believe that students should be allowed to express their point of view about running their school because it is highly beneficial for adolescents.  

___________________________________________________

#Эссе по английскому на тему личной жизни звезд

The topic of celebrities’ privacy has become a subject of heated debates in recent years. Some people accept the fact that famous people’s private lives are featured in mass media, while others believe it is immoral and unacceptable.

From my point of view, details of celebrities’ private lives should not be accessible to public. First of all, each person has the right to have their own private life and celebrities are no exception. They are often tired of too much publicity given to them. Secondly, newspapers and magazines frequently publish untrue stories, so called canards to attract readers’ attention, which is not only amoral, but illegal as well. Thirdly, a lot of details published about famous people are unnecessary and irrelevant and some of them make the public silly. For example, public awareness of intimate details of celebrities’ lives does not contribute to people’s personal development – instead, it makes them become degraded.   

However, a lot of newspapers and magazines feature private lives of famous people. Proponents of this are convinced that publicity helps to promote celebrities’ careers and makes them more famous. Without gossip stars would pass into oblivion too soon.

They may be right, but I am sure that the best way to have a good reputation is to do your job well. Besides, if newspapers and magazines publish any articles about private lives of celebrities, they should focus on their cultural achievements, not on rumours about them.

To sum up, I strongly believe that celebrities’ private lives should not be the main topic of mass media. Instead, newspapers and magazines should publish actual information about important events that have happened in the world. 

 

The issue of giving young people pocket money has become a disputable one in recent years. Many adults are in favour of it while others would rather not provide their children with cash.

From my point of view, providing a youngster an allowance has a number of benefits. First of all, it lets teenagers understand the true value of money and therefore spend it reasonably not wasting it on trifles. With limited means and unlimited needs a child learns to economize. Secondly, pocket money teaches youngsters to plan their own budget, which will come in handy later in life. Adolescents who are given pocket money are more likely to manage it wisely at periods of financial difficulty in the future. Thirdly, being given pocket money and being made to spend it anyhow, youngsters cannot but become more mature and less dependent on their parents because they learn to make their own decisions.

However, a lot of grown-ups see no point in giving their children pocket money considering them not old enough to manage it. They prefer to fulfill young people’s needs without making them deal with money.

I disagree with them because teenagers who are not given pocket money will have serious problems when dealing with money later in their life. What[T1]  is more, they often lack responsibility and are afraid of making decisions of their own.

All in all, I would argue about the necessity to provide young people with pocket money. I am convinced that being given pocket money youngsters master indispensable skills which will prove useful when they get older.    


#Эссе по английскому на тему карманных денег 

The issue of giving young people pocket money has become a disputable one in recent years. Many adults are in favour of it while others would rather not provide their children with cash.

From my point of view, providing a youngster an allowance has a number of benefits. First of all, it lets teenagers understand the true value of money and therefore spend it reasonably not wasting it on trifles. With limited means and unlimited needs a child learns to economize. Secondly, pocket money teaches youngsters to plan their own budget, which will come in handy later in life. Adolescents who are given pocket money are more likely to manage it wisely at periods of financial difficulty in the future. Thirdly, being given pocket money and being made to spend it anyhow, youngsters cannot but become more mature and less dependent on their parents because they learn to make their own decisions.

However, a lot of grown-ups see no point in giving their children pocket money considering them not old enough to manage it. They prefer to fulfill young people’s needs without making them deal with money.

I disagree with them because teenagers who are not given pocket money will have serious problems when dealing with money later in their life. What is more, they often lack responsibility and are afraid of making decisions of their own.

All in all, I would argue about the necessity to provide young people with pocket money. I am convinced that being given pocket money youngsters master indispensable skills which will prove useful when they get older.    


#Эссе по английскому на тему защиты окружающей среды

The environmental issue is one of the most controversial nowadays. There is an ongoing debate on whether people should take care of the environment. Some people think it is our duty to preserve the environment, whereas others are sure it is too expensive.

From my point of view, all people should help the environment in any way they can. First of all, our health depends on the environment that is why we should do our best to save it. For example, air and water pollution can cause such diseases as cancer, lupus, allergies, and asthma    Secondly, we should preserve our environment for future generations. It is our job to make sure our children and grandchildren live in the clean environment.

However, a lot of people argue that taking care of the environment requires too much money. Besides, they consider it futile for an individual to start preserving the environment while others keep throwing rubbish or wasting water and do not even consider recycling.

I do not agree with the above-given view because taxes which make up the governmental budget could be used to educate people how to care about the environment. Besides, I am convinced it is possible to protect our environment if all people put their effort into it, which can be achieved by teaching them ways they can do to help the environment.

To sum up, I strongly believe we should do our best to protect the environment because it is beneficial for us. A Healthy environment will prevent many common diseases people face nowadays and generally improve their well-being.

 

 


webenglish.ucoz.com

Пример эссе для ЕГЭ по английскому: abartnovskaya


Ранее я уже писала об общих требованиях к написанию эссе. Сейчас хотелось бы дать один пример такой работы с разбором.
Тема эссе:  Some people think that young people think about making money and career.

1.Сначала пишем введение. Оно должно включать в себя мысль, высказанную в задании, и прямо противоположную. Вы, как бы, вступаете в дискуссию со стороной, имеющей иную точку зрения. Здесь можно выучить наизусть начальные фразы, и пользоваться этим знанием на экзамене.

There are two opposite points of view on the attitude of young people towards money and career. Some people are sure that these two things are the main concern of modern youth. Others, on the contrary, argue that the interests of modern teenagers are various.

2. Далее, вы должны привести свою точку зрения, и дать, минимум, два аргумента, в пользу своей позиции.
As for me, I consider that young people, like all people in the world are different, and their interests, ambitions and attitude towards money and career differ too.
Some of my friends are going to study finance, economics or law, because they believe, that those professions will help them to find a good job and earn a lot of money.
Others are seeking for interesting occupations in life, which will make them happy, and not always they are well-paid. For example, traditionally, it's difficult to enter Medical Academy. But, it's a well-known fact, that a doctor is not a well-paid job in Russia. The same with teachers and scientists.

3. Затем вам следует изложить точку зрения ваших оппонентов, и объяснить, почему они пришли к такому выводу.
But many people suppose that modern teenagers have no other interests, besides making money and career. They see youngsters, fussing around and trying to earn or get as much money as possible. Also, there are a lot of talks around, how and where to get money. It producers the impression of only one issue, people are interested in: money.

Surely, money plays a great role in our life, but nevertheless, for majority of young people their real interests, such as painting, sport, sciences, and many others are much more important. I know it from my example, and from the example of my friends.


4. И, последнее, вывод. Он должен вытекать из всего вышесказанного.
In conclusion, I would like to say, that very few people are ready to work hard long hours, if a job is not interesting, you will not be able to do it. And most young people understand it very well, and do many different things, and have many different interests.

Пожалуйста, напишите мне, если эта статья показалась вам полезной или у вас есть вопросы по подготовке эссе для ЕГЭ.

Если вам или вашим детям предстоит сдать ЕГЭ, почитаете так же другие мои записи на тему этого экзамена, а так же разборы различных эссе.

abartnovskaya.livejournal.com

Author: alexxlab

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