Тема для эссе по английскому – Материал для подготовки к ЕГЭ (ГИА) по английскому языку (11 класс) на тему: Образцы эссе для ЕГЭ | скачать бесплатно

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Темы эссе для ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Подробный список.

02.09.2018

  • ЕГЭ по английскому языку

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ЕГЭ по английскому языку

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Хорошо написанное эссе поможет вам получить большое количество баллов. Именно поэтому, следует развивать свои навыки написания эссе на английском языке. Для того чтобы научиться писать эссе для ЕГЭ, вы можете потренироваться при помощи списка тем, которые встречаются на экзамене чаще всего.

Раздел «Письмо»: из чего состоит и чего ожидать на экзамене

Дорогие друзья!

Важным залогом успеха при подготовки к ЕГЭ по английскому языку является умение писать по-английски на разные темы, при этом соблюдая грамматические и пунктуационные правила. Раздел «Письмо» состоит из двух заданий: личное письмо и эссе.

Особенную трудность вызывает написание эссе, поскольку для того, чтобы успешно справиться с задачей, необходимо владеть набором знаний, умений и навыков.

Во-первых, необходимо свободно оперировать значительным объемом общеязыкового и тематического словаря.

Во-вторых, необходимо обладать большим объемом дополнительной, так называемой «фоновой информации»» из общего кругозора по истории, экономики, географии и культуре. Это необходимо для того, чтобы формулировать грамотные аргументы в пользу своего мнения.

В-третьих, нужно быть хорошо знакомым со структурой эссе, важнейшей составной частью которой является выстраивание аргументации, смотрите в нашей статье про аргументацию и уметь изложить свою точку зрения на проблемные вопросы в рамках тематики заданной на экзамене. Предварительно, до экзамена необходимо ознакомиться с кругом тем, которые так или иначе могут встретиться на экзамене, возможно в перефразированном виде, однако очень похожи.

В-четвертых, необходимо знание языкового оформления структуры эссе – фраз, вводящих логические части эссе, союзов, выражающих различные логические и смысловые отношения между мыслями. Помните, что очень важно уметь грамотно оформить свои мысли с точки зрения грамматики, правописания и пунктуации.

Список тем эссе для подготовки к ЕГЭ по-английскому

Вашему вниманию представлен примерный список тем, которые из года в год встречаются в заданиях ЕГЭ в разделе «Письмо», в части эссе. Темы могут быть перефразированы, но суть остается, поэтому настоятельно рекомендую потренироваться с репетитором и написать эссе на все эти темы, тщательно продумывая аргументацию.

Список тем составлен на основе учебников для подготовки к ЕГЭ и на личном опыте 🙂

  1. Smoking should be prohibited.
  2. Travelling abroad helps to understand your own country.
  3. The growth of cities is harmful to the environment.
  4. Technical progress is harmful for the humanity.
  5. The most important thing in life is health.
  6. The most important thing in life is love.
  7. Social media interaction is important for modern teenagers.
  8. The most important thing in life is family.
  9. The most important thing in life is work.
  10. School classmates make the best friends.
  11. It’s easier to make friends that to keep them.
  12. The circus is the best entertainment for children.
  13. Childhood is the safest period of human life.
  14. High school students should only study the subjects they choose.
  15. Some people think that Russian is easier to learn than English.
  16. It’s better to read a book rather than watch its screen version.
  17. Following the fashion trends is waste of time and money.
  18. Music is something that distracts people from their daily routine.
  19. In the digital age museums are still important.
  20. A teacher should always be strict.
  21. Organized travel is not as interesting as independent travel.
  22. Playing sports helps to reduce stress.
  23. Having a computer at home will help children to get a better education.
  24. Cars should be banned from the city centers.
  25. Cars are important modern type of transport.
  26. To be rich means to be successful.
  27. Future will bring only positive impact on the world.
  28. Appearance is the most important thing for a modern teenager.
  29. All school subjects should be equally important for a pupil.
  30. Genetically modified products are not harmful for the health of people.
  31. Cities provide people with more advantages than villages.
  32. Graffiti should be considered as an act of vandalism.
  33. Taking a gap year after school is necessary step for every teenager.
  34. Choosing future profession is a difficult task for every school-leaver.
  35. Diets are important to stay fit and healthy.
  36. Healthy eating is an important part of everyday life.
  37. Having only one language of communication on our planet is a wise decision.
  38. Zoos should be prohibited.
  39. Zoos help most animals to survive.
  40. Studying a foreign language abroad is important for everyone.
  41. Knowing one foreign language isn’t enough.
  42. The Internet is the most useful invention in the world.
  43. Human cloning experiments should be prohibited.
  44. The Internet will be the main source of studying in the future.
  45. Computer games are one of the best ways to spend free time.
  46. Space exploration is very important for the future of our planet.
  47. Space travelling should be available for everyone in the future.
  48. Mobile phones are one of the most convenient ways of communication.
  49. Modern teenagers are criticized for no reason.
  50. Young generation lives better that people lived in the past.
  51. Soap operas are not interesting and take too much time.
  52. Violence on TV should be prohibited.
  53. To be rich means to be happy.
  54. Distant learning will become the only type of education in the future.
  55. Online education is very important nowadays.
  56. Home schooling is very convenient way of studying.
  57. Government should be responsible for people’s health.
  58. Holidays are important for every culture.
  59. Modern life is impossible without travelling.
  60. Travelling broadens one’s outlook.
  61. One should choose a future profession according to personal interests and talents.
  62. Parents should allow teenagers to work part-time.
  63. Work from home is better that the work in an office.
  64. Reality show is one of the best TV shows.
  65. Digital literacy is an important part of modern life.

Порядок подсчета слов в заданиях раздела «Письмо»

При оценивании заданий раздела «Письмо» следует учитывать такой параметр как объем письменного текста, выраженный в количестве слов. Требуемый объем для личного письма в задании 40, то есть в эссе – 200-250 слов. Допустимое отклонение от заданного объема составляет 10 %. Если в выполненном задании 40 менее 180 слов, то задание проверке не подлежит и оценивается в 0 баллов. Ведь, действительно, первое, что делают преподаватели – считают количество слов в выполненной работе. При превышении объема более чем на 10%, то есть если в задании 40 будет более 275 слов, проверке подлежит та часть работы, которая соответствует требуемому объему. Таким образом, при проверке

задания 40 отсчитывается 250 слов, и оценивается только эта часть работы.

При определении объема работы этим требованиям считаются все слова, с первого слова по последнее, включая вспомогательные глаголы, предлоги, артикли и частицы. При этом следует знать, что сокращенные формы didn’t, doesn’t, I’m и прочие будут считаться одним словом. Также, все числительные, выраженные цифрами считаются одним словом. А числительные выраженные словами считаются как слова. Все сложные слова, такие как good-looking, English-speaking, twenty-five считаются как слова. Различные сокращения и аббревиатуры USA, e-mail, TV, считаются как одно слово.

Самый главный совет: читайте и пишите по-английски каждый день хотя бы чуть-чуть.

Удачи в подготовке к написанию эссе на ЕГЭ по английскому языку!

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Топики (темы) по английскому языку

Английские топики и сочинения на все случаи жизни!

Каждому, у кого в школе одним из предметов был любимый English, хорошо знакомы топики на английском. Такие ученики вряд ли свяжут слово «топик» с одеждой, потому что отлично помнят его написание латинскими буквами (topic) и каждую четверть писали какой-нибудь рассказ на английском на тему «Моя семья», «Праздники в Великобритании», «Мое хобби», «Моя школа» и прочие милые тексты.

Пока не было Интернета и занятий с репетитором курсы английского по скайп, школьники брали штурмом книжные магазины, где продавались книги с гордым названием «Топики по английскому». Теперь же Сеть заполонили тысячи английских текстов, похожих друг на друга, как 2 капли воды. И достаточно примитивных по содержанию. Мы решили устранить этот недостаток и начали собирать библиотеку топиков, чтобы каждый из вас мог использовать их как помощь для написания своего интересного сочинения по английскому языку: в одном тексте взял идею, в другом – отдельные фразы, в третьем – интересное предложение. А на выходе получится эксклюзивный топик на тему, заданную преподавателем.

Кроме того, некоторые наши топики – с переводом. Это поможет лучше понять сложные фразы или вообще понять, о чем идет речь, если вы знаете только буквы английского алфавита 🙂

А еще вы можете сами принять участие и оказать реальную услугу для своих единомышленников. То есть если у вас есть удачный рассказ на английском на любую тему, то можете смело делиться своей находкой, пополняя таким образом нашу общую библиотеку тематических топиков по английскому. Это может быть как топик на популярную тему (например, «Рассказ о себе», «Обычаи и традиции США», «Книги в нашей жизни», «Мое любимое время года», «На уроке английского языка» и т.д.), так и на более экзотическую («Реклама», «Образование в России», «Животные и домашние любимцы» и пр.), а можете написать простой текст на английском по любом интересующей вас тематике.

Наши топики, обычно, легкие для чтения и небольшие по размеру. Они отлично подходят для начинающих изучать английский язык!

Напишем вместе классный рассказ на английском!

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ЕГЭ: Темы эссе по английскому языку/30 essay sample topics

Здесь собраны темы для эссе (задание 2 письменной части ЕГЭ) по английскому языку представленные на сайте ФИПИ.

Communication & Personality

Some people think that extreme sports help to build character.

Some people think that you can have only one true friend.

Virtual Internet communication results in losing real-life social skills.


Education

Distance learning is the best form of education.

A pupil cannot study effectively without a computer.

Exams motivate students to study harder.

Some people think that to get a good education one should go abroad.

Some people think that learning foreign languages is a waste of time and money.

Public libraries are becoming less popular and they will soon disappear.


Environment

It is the government’s responsibility to protect the environment.


Family & Children

It’s not right to be strict with little children.


Fashion

Clothes people are wearing can influence their behaviour.


Foof & Diets

Fast food outlets should be closed.


Housing

There are more disadvantages than advantages in living in a big city.


Leisure

Every city and every town should have a zoo.

The best time is that spent with family and friends.


Sport

Sport unites people.

Playing sports is better than watching others do it.

Sports help people to fight stress.


Technology

The Internet is the biggest evil of our time.

Internet is the greatest time-waster.

Space exploration was the greatest achievement of the 20th century.


Traditions & Customs

The best holidays and festivals are those with specific traditions for celebrating.


Work

There are no men’s or women’s professions.

Everybody would like to work from home.

A person who is fluent in a foreign language can easily teach it.

Computers cannot replace people.

Some people think that young people should follow in their parents’ footsteps when choosing a profession.

In any occupation discipline is more important than talent.

A person who is fluent in a foreign language can easily work as an interpreter.

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Эссе по английскому языку, примеры для ЕГЭ


Мир полон знаний, а образование – это единственная ступень, помогающая человеку достичь совершенства. Интересно, что слово «эссе» пришло в русский язык из французского, однако имеет латинскую историю. Французское слово «essai» может иметь несколько вариантов перевода, «опыт», «проба», «очерк».


Итак, эссе – это сочинение заданного объема и зачастую свободной композиции, однако если речь идет об эссе по английскому, то тут нужно придерживаться четкого плана, все зависит от типа сочинения. Основными чертами эссе являются наличие исчерпывающей информации касательно конкретной темы, выражение индивидуального мнения, а также контраргументы.


Школьникам важно научиться писать эссе, чтобы с легкостью справиться с заданиями на экзамене, а позже суметь подать себя и описать свои достижения потенциальному работодателю.


Основная цель эссе заключается в развитии навыков самостоятельного творческого мышления и письменного выражения мыслей.


И если грамотно выражать мысли вы уже научились, то структурировать информацию, а также выделять связи и иллюстрировать все примерами, довольно сложно. Именно поэтому такое сочинение как эссе по английскому языку и выносится на ЕГЭ.


Эссе по английскому примеры


Electronic books versus printed books. Who will be the winner in future? 


Recent researches have shown that the quantity of readers of printed books is constantly reducing. Electronic books are becoming the most popular way of getting information. But despite of their certain advantages many of us prefer acquaintance with fresh printed volumes. Will electronic books replace printed ones?


I am convinced that the growing number of readers will be absolutely happy to get an e-book as their birthday present. First of all, electronic versions can store thousands of books at the same time. Besides, there will be no need to go shopping for every new book because people can do buy it at one click.


On the other hand, there are a lot of people who are not ready to replace printed books because they are better for human eyes. Moreover printed books are much easier to read because of no need in electricity supply. Nowadays less people are ready to buy books because of its expensive price but printed books are still the reminding of a miracle that each of us can easily touch and breathe in.


Summing up all the above, I think both books variants will happily coexist in future, it means that it will be possible to enjoy fresh printed books as well as easily download electronic ones into your gadget.


Электронные книги против печатных книг. Кто станет победителем в будущем? 


Недавние исследования показали, что количество читателей печатных книг постоянно уменьшается. Говоря об электронных книгах, они становятся наиболее популярным способом получения информации. Но, несмотря на их определенные преимущества, многие из нас предпочитают знакомство со свеженапечатанными книгами. Заменят ли электронные книги печатные?


Я уверена, что растущее число читателей будет абсолютно счастливы получить электронную книгу в качестве подарка на день рождения. Во-первых, электронные версии могут хранить тысячи книг одновременно. Кроме того, не будет необходимости отправляться за покупкой каждой новой книги, ведь ее можно купить в один клик.


С другой стороны, есть много людей, не готовых заменить печатные книги, потому что они лучше для глаз. Кроме того, печатные книги легче читать, так как они не нуждаются в электропитании. Сегодня меньше людей готовы купить книги из-за высокой цены, но печатные книги все еще остаются напоминанием о чуде, к которому каждый из нас может прикоснуться и вдохнуть.


Подводя итог вышесказанному, я считаю, что оба варианта книг смогут счастливо сосуществовать в будущем, а это значит, что будет возможно наслаждаться печатными книгами также, как и легко скачать электронную книгу в свой гаджет.


Эссе за и против по английскому


Что касается эссе «за и против», то здесь важно четко выразить два противоположных мнения – а так же выразить собственное мнение о проблеме. Например, если речь об изучении нескольких иностранных языков в школе. Начать стоит с постановки проблемы:


Nowadays people are keen on many different languages to survive in the fast moving world. Therefore people send children to schools to learn as many languages as possible. However, is it good to get knowledge of several languages at the same time?


Проблема ясна – хорошо ли изучать несколько языков одновременно. Далее выражаем собственное мнение относительно поставленной ситуации. Firstly, foreign languages broaden our world view giving us the opportunity to speak without fears. Secondly, every new language is the perspective to know a new culture and to find a good job. Moreover, every new language helps to think more quickly and to learn faster.


Теперь нужно подчеркнуть, что есть и отрицательные стороны изучения нескольких иностранных языков одновременно.


On the other hand, learning several languages can be confusing, especially if talking about languages of the same group. Some languages contain many rules while others many have exceptions. All this can lead to misunderstanding of new languages as well as the native one.


Теперь самое время подвести итог. Being a person of a modern society, I would like to say that the knowledge of many languages is a beneficial advantage. However, people should learn their native language first before starting several ones at the same time.


Так может выглядеть пример эссе по английскому для ЕГЭ.


Учите английский язык с помощью онлайн сервиса Lim English и написать эссе для Вас не составит труда. Начать обучение можно по ссылке.

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Готовые эссе по английскому языку

Последним письменным заданием С2  в  ЕГЭ по английскому языку, считается написание эссе. Размер написание эссе должен составлять  200-250 слов, а его конструкция обязана быть надлежащей: вступление (с формулировкой проблемы), личное соображение (включая 2-3 аргумента), обратное соображение по задаче (включая 1-2 аргумента), первопричина несогласия с обратным воззрением и заточение. При выполнении предоставленного поручения вы сможете применить готовые эссе по британскому языку, которые представлены ниже (со шпаргалками).

Список готовых эссе


FOOD
1. Some people say that fast food has a bad effect on our health.
2. Some people say that genetically modified food is hazardous to health.
3. Some people think that there are many benefits of being a vegetarian.
4. Some people think that organic food is healthier than conventional food.
5. Some people believe that the only way to lose weight is following a weight loss diet.
6. Some people think that we should eat at home.
FASHION
7. Some people believe that it is important to look nice and to follow fashion.
8. Some people think that clothes help them show who they really are.
9. Some people think that schoolchildren should wear school uniforms.
10. Some people say that there should not be any rules about the clothes people can wear in the workplace.
11. Some people say that wearing fur is unacceptable.
12. Some people think that tattoos and piercing make them more attractive.
TRAVEL & TOURISM
13. Some people think that tourism ruins everything that it touches.
14. Some people say that school trips are beneficial for students.
15. Some people say ecotourism benefits the environment and local people.
16. Some people think that the best way to travel in a town or in a city is on foot.
17. Some people say that cars have improved our lives in a number of ways.
18. Some people say that travelling by plane is very convenient.
19. Some people say that taking public transportation is a convenient option for travelling.
20. Some people say that hitchhiking is the best way of travelling.
21. Some people say that travelling to exotic countries is an exciting experience.
22. Some people think that international travel has a lot of benefits.
23. Some people say that the best way to travel is by train.
24. Some people say that the best way to travel is by ship.
25. Some people choose to travel abroad to receive medical care.
FRIENDSHIP & LOVE
26. Some people say that having friends is important for everyone.
27. Some people think that you can have only one true friend.
28. Some people think that only those who have much in common can become friends.
29. Some people think that nothing can ruin a true friendship.
30. Many people think that love makes a person happy.
31. Some people think that jealousy is a very destructive emotion.
MONEY
32. Some people think that only those who earn a lot of money can be happy.
33. Some people think that pocket money teaches teenagers to be responsible.
34. Some people say that making money with the Internet is reality.
35. Some people say that teenagers should work to earn money.
LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES
36. Some people say that having a hobby is important for everyone.
37. Some people say that playing computer games is the best way to spend your free time.
38. Some people believe that teenagers should not be given too much free time.
39. Some people think that reading is a waste of time.
40. Some people think that collecting various things is a waste of time and money.
EDUCATION
41. Some people say that online education is an excellent alternative to traditional education.
42. Some people think that homeschooling is an excellent alternative to traditional education.
43. Some people think that self-education is not very effective.
44. Some people think that if you want to get a good education, you should go abroad.
45. Some people think that boys and girls should study separately at different schools.
46. Some people think that the most important thing for a teacher is to make studying enjoyable for students.
47. Some school-leavers think that university is not for them and choose not to go.
48. Some people think that computers may replace teachers in the future.
49. Some people believe that exams are the best way to check the student’s knowledge.
50. Many people think that homework is essential for every student.
51. Some people believe that students should be allowed to choose the subjects they want to study.
52. Some people think that grades encourage students to learn.
53. Some people think that students will use computers instead of textbooks in the future.
54. Some people think that creativity is an essential ability which must be taught at school.
55. Some people think that punishment should be used in class to achieve discipline and to make students study hard.
WORK & CAREER
56. Some people say that having jobs can be of great benefit to teenagers.
57. Some people say that they would prefer to work at home.
58. Some people think that it is more important to get satisfaction from your work than to earn much money.
59. Some people think that in any occupation discipline is more important than talent.
60. Some people think that young people should follow in their parents’ footsteps when choosing a profession.
61. Some people change their jobs every few years.
62. Some people think that it is better to work abroad.
63. Some people believe that they will be successful and happy only if they work much.
64. At present, there is no difficulty in finding a good job.
65. Some people think that there is nothing worse than being unemployed.
66. Many people believe that it is important to develop teamwork in the workplace.
67. Some people prefer to work for themselves or to own a business.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
68. Some people think that modern technologies make life more convenient.
69. Some people say that cell phones have changed our lives for the better.
70. Some people say that using mobile telephones must be prohibited in school.
71. Some people believe that all teenagers should have a cell phone.
72. Some people think that the Internet has more drawbacks than advantages.
73. Some people think that children should spend less time surfing the Net.
74. Some people say that the Internet has improved the effectiveness of education.
75. Some people say that social networking sites offer considerable advantages.
76. Some people believe that there are real risks to dating via the Internet.
77. Some people think that online chatting cannot substitute for face-to-face communication.
78. Some people prefer writing traditional paper letters to using e-mail.
79. Some people think that cloning opens up new opportunities.
80. Some people are worried about computers and robots doing the same things that people can do.
81. Some people say that a virtual field trip can be a good alternative to a traditional field trip.
THE ARTS
82. Some people say that the theatre is likely to disappear.
83. Some people think that graffiti is vandalism.
84. Some people believe that dancing can be of great benefit to children.
MUSIC
85. Some people believe that listening to music has good effects on everyone.
86. Some people think that rap music has a bad influence on teenagers.
87. Some people say that they are used to working or studying to the sound of music.
FILMS
88. Some people think that watching movies is beneficial to everybody.
89. Some people are fond of 3D films.
BOOKS
90. Some people prefer watching a film version to reading a book.
91. Some people say that electronic books are going to replace paper books in the future.
92. Some people say that we do not need public libraries any more.
93. Some people say that reading detective stories is just a waste of time.
SPORTS, HEALTH & BEAUTY
94. Some people say that weight loss diets can be very harmful.
95. Some people say that it is important to exercise regularly.
96. Some people say that extreme sports are too risky.
97. Some people believe that children should be encouraged to go in for sports.
98. Some people dream of becoming professional athletes.
99. Some people say that one should go to a fitness club to be healthy and slim.
100. Some people think that surfing is rather risky.
101. Some people think that parkour is not for everybody.
102. Some people think that physical attractiveness is important for everyone.
103. Some people think that plastic surgery can help them to become more attractive and happier.
FAMILY PROBLEMS
104. Some people prefer to have only one child.
105. Some couples choose not to have children.
106. Some people choose to build a family through adoptions.
107. These days, some people adopt children from overseas.
108. Some people believe that adult children should not live with their parents.
109. Some people think that couples should not marry young.
110. Some people say that it is wonderful to have a sibling.
111. Some people believe that grandparents should take an active part in their grandchildren’s upbringing.
GLOBAL PROBLEMS
112. Some people say that overpopulation is a major problem for the human race.
113. Some people think that stress can ruin one’s life.
114. Some people continue smoking in spite of all warnings.
115. Some people believe that the problems caused by gambling are very serious.
116. Some people say that capital punishment should be allowed.
117. Some people believe that the lives of the disabled are much easier nowadays.
MASS MEDIA
118. Some people say that there is nothing better than watching TV.
119. Some people believe that watching TV can have harmful effects on children.
120. Some people think that reality TV shows are enjoyable and bring many benefits to the audience and the actors.
121. Many people watch soap operas because they find them enjoyable and realistic.
122. Some people say that print media will disappear in the future.
123. Some people say that radio is not as popular as it used to be.
SHOPPING
124. Some people say that shopping is interesting and enjoyable.
125. Some people say that shopping malls have advantages over small shops.
126. Some people say that our lives would be better if we bought fewer goods.
127. Some people say that online shopping is an excellent alternative to traditional shopping.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
128. Many people say that it is important to recycle waste.
129. Some people believe that going green has a lot of benefits.
130. Some people prefer hybrid cars to traditional cars.
131. Some people think that there are many reasons to promote carpooling.
YOUTH PROBLEMS
132. Some people say that modern teenagers are carefree.
133. Some people are worried about the strong influence of peer groups on teenagers.
134. Parents have many concerns about their teenagers dating.
135. Some parents think that teenagers should not be given much independence.
ANIMALS
136. Some people believe that animals should not be taken from their natural surroundings and put into zoos.
137. Some people think that keeping exotic animals as pets is an interesting experience.
138. Some people think that keeping pets is a waste of time and money.
139. Some people object to animal testing.
140. Some people think that virtual pets can replace real pets.
MISCELLANEOUS
141. Some people think there are a lot of benefits of living in a big city.
142. Some people believe that learning foreign languages is a waste of time.
143. Some people say that the English language should be learnt in England.
144. Many people dream of being famous someday.
145. Time management skills are important for success.
146. Some people do not care whether they buy pirated or legal CDs and DVDs.
147. Some people think it is important to be honest in any situation.
148. Some people say that ambitiousness is the key to success and happiness.
149. Some people think that we should use critical thinking rather than trust intuition.
150. Some people say that nonverbal messages improve communication.

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Эссе по английскому языку. Как написать топик на различные темы — примеры сочинений

Сочинение (essay) или топик (topic) на английском языке – важная часть письменной речи. Написание сочинения помогает пополнять словарный запас и на практике отрабатывать сложные грамматические конструкции. Сочинение – одно из самых важных и сложных заданий в экзаменах на знание английского языка. Встречается оно как в ЕГЭ, так и в международных экзаменах – IELTS, TOEFL, FCE и др. Написать сочинение на английском языке сложнее, чем письмо или электронное сообщение, поэтому и требования к сочинениям намного выше. Оно должно соответствовать выбранному заранее стилю повествования, подробно раскрывать тему и быть строго структурированным, не говоря уже о том, что в сочинении недопустимы грамматические ошибки. В зависимости от темы и назначения, сочинения или эссе по английскому языку могут быть нескольких видов.


Содержание:



Виды эссе

Описательное

Основная цель: описать основные черты объекта, процесса, явления.

Этот вид эссе допускает эмоциональный, экспрессивный стиль, включающий большое количество деталей. При написании такого текста забудьте о краткости и лаконичности. Используйте воображение, чтобы максимально точно описать то, что вы хотите.


Аналитическое

Основная цель: проанализировать и критически оценить заявленную тему.

Среди всех видов эссе этот выделяется повышенным требованием к структурированности текста и логике повествования. В аналитическом эссе важно строго упорядочить информацию и преподнести ее последовательно. Также важную роль здесь играют слова-связки, которые позволят читателю следить за ходом ваших мыслей.


Сочинение-рассуждение

Основная цель: привести аргументы «за» и «против» какой-либо позиции.

К особенностям данного сочинения относится большое количество приводимых примеров и раскрытие разных идей и взглядов. Для написания такого эссе важно провести тщательное исследование по выбранной теме.


Убеждающее

Основная цель: убедить читателей в своей точке зрения.

Данный тип эссе предполагает заочную дискуссию с читателями. Задача автора здесь – максимально убедительно аргументировать свою позицию, чтобы читатели с ней согласились. Для достижения этой цели допускается манипулировать эмоциями читателей, но основными инструментами должны быть логичное построение и точные факты.


Сравнение и сопоставление

Основная цель: обсудить основные различия и сходства между выбранными объектами. В данном топике автору предстоит рассортировать разные вещи или понятия по категориям. Такой тип сочинения полезен, когда необходимо проанализировать разницу между объектами.


Причинно-следственное

Основная цель: объяснить, как и почему определенные причины приведут к определенным результатам.

Данное сочинение предполагает два варианта построения текста: один результат и несколько причин, вызвавших его; или одна причина, которая привела к нескольким результатам. Часто данный тип эссе используется в темах про экологию и политику.



Структура эссе

Стандартное сочинение на английском языке состоит из разных видов информации, которые располагаются в специальных разделах текста. Даже в коротком топике обязательны три таких раздела: вступление, основная информация или «тело» и заключение.


Вступление

Вводный абзац топика должен содержать формулировку тезиса и в общих чертах дать понять читателю, о чем будет сочинение. Заканчиваться вступление должно словом или фразой, которые переносят читателя в первый абзац следующего раздела эссе.


Пример на английскомПеревод
«No man is an island» and, as such, he is constantly shaped and influenced by his experiences. People learn by doing and, accordingly, learn considerably more from their mistakes than their success. For proof of this, consider examples from both science and everyday experience.Как говорится, «один в поле не воин», следовательно, каждый человек формируется под воздействием своего опыта. Люди учатся на практике и значительно больше узнают из своих ошибок, нежели чем из успехов. Для доказательства этого рассмотрим примеры из науки и повседневного опыта.

Тело

Первый абзац

В первом абзаце сочинения должен быть самый сильный аргумент, самый выразительный пример или самая подходящая иллюстрация. Первое предложение этого абзаца должно по смыслу продолжать вступление. Там же или во втором предложении должна содержаться основная мысль абзаца.

Бесплатный урок на тему:

Неправильные глаголы английского языка: таблица, правила и примеры


Пример на английскомПеревод
Take, by way of example, Thomas Edison. The famed American inventor rose to prominence in the late 19th century because of his successes, yes, but even he felt that these successes were the result of his many failures. He did not succeed in his work on one of his most famous inventions, the light bulb, on his first try nor even on his hundred and first try.Возьмем для примера Томаса Эдисона. Знаменитый американский изобретатель получил известность в конце 19-го века благодаря своим успехам, но даже он чувствовал, что эти успехи явились результатом его многочисленных неудач. Он не преуспел в своей работе над одним из его самых известных изобретений – лампочкой – ни с первой, ни даже со сто первой попытки.

Второй абзац

Во втором абзаце должен содержаться второй по силе аргумент или иллюстрирующий пример. По своему содержанию он продолжает первый абзац, дополняя его новой информацией.


Пример на английскомПеревод
In fact, it took him more than 1,000 attempts to make the first incandescent bulb but, along with the way, he learned quite a deal. As he himself said, «I did not fail a thousand times but instead succeeded in finding a thousand ways it would not work.» Thus Edison demonstrated both in thought and action how instructive mistakes can be.На самом деле ему потребовалось более 1000 попыток для создания первой лампы накаливания, но, тем не менее, он многое узнал благодаря этому. Как он сам потом говорил, «Я не ошибся тысячу раз, я обнаружил тысячу способов того, как это не работает». Таким образом Эдисон продемонстрировал на примере своих мыслей и поступков, как поучительны могут быть ошибки.

Третий абзац

В третьем абзаце используют самый слабый аргумент или иллюстрирующий пример. Здесь также дополняется основная информация сочинения, но она уже не так важна, как в первых двух абзацах основной части. Последнее предложение третьего абзаца должно отсылать читателя к заключению.


Пример на английскомПеревод
In a similar way, we are all like Edison in our own way. Whenever we learn a new skill — be it riding a bike, driving a car, or cooking a cake — we learn from our mistakes. Few, if any, are ready to go from training wheels to a marathon in a single day but these early experiences (these so-called mistakes) can help us improve our performance over time. You cannot make a cake without breaking a few eggs and, likewise, we learn by doing and doing inevitably means making mistakes.В каком-то смысле, мы все похожи на Эдисона в нашем собственном пути. Всякий раз, когда мы осваиваем новый навык – будь то езда на велосипеде, вождение автомобиля или приготовление торта – мы учимся на своих ошибках. Немногие, если таковые имеются, могут пройти путь от новичка до профессионала, но этот опыт (так называемые ошибки) может помочь нам улучшить нашу производительность с течением времени. Вы не можете сделать пирог, не разбив несколько яиц, и, к тому же, мы учимся, делая, а любое действие предполагает совершение ошибок.

Заключение

Заключительный абзац – последний по порядку, но отнюдь не последний по значению. Это ваш последний шанс донести до читателя свою мысль и позицию, поэтому еще раз постарайтесь четко и логично сформулировать основной посыл сочинения. Не растягивайте заключительный абзац – трех-четырех предложений будет достаточно.


Пример на английскомПеревод
In the end, then, one thing is clear: mistakes do far more to help us learn and improve than successes. As examples from both science and everyday experience can attest, if we treat each mistake not as a misstep but as a learning experience the possibilities for self-improvement are limitless.В конце концов, ясно одно: ошибки делают гораздо больше, чтобы помочь нам учиться и совершенствоваться, чем успехи. Примеры из науки и повседневного опыта могут подтвердить, что, если мы относимся к ошибкам не как к ошибкам, а как к опыту, возможности для самосовершенствования безграничны.

Полезные фразы для каждой части

Вступление

This topic discusses – Данное сочинение рассматривает …
The definition of … will be given – Определение … будет дано …
The topic focused on – Данный топик сфокусирован на …
In this essay – В этом эссе.
The key aspect discussed – Ключевой аспект обсуждения.
Views on … range from – Взгляды на … колеблются от …
The central theme – Центральная тема.
Emphasised are – Подчеркнуто, что …


Тело

For example – Например
As can be seen in – Как видно в …
An illustration of – В иллюстрации …
As demonstrated by – Как продемонстрировано в …
Is observed – Рассматривается
Another essential point – Другой важный аспект
Additionally – Вдобавок
More importantly – Что еще более важно
In the same way – В то же время


Заключение

In summary – В целом.
In conclusion – В заключение.
In brief – Вкратце.
To summarize – Подводя итог.
To sum up – Подводя итог.
To conclude – В заключение
Thus – Таким образом.
Hence – Отсюда.
It has been shown that – Было показано, что …
In short – Вкратце.



Слова-связки и вводные слова для сочинения в таблице


Английское слово/фразаПереводИспользование
In order toдля того, чтобыИспользуется, чтобы начать объяснение цели эссе или конкретного аргумента.
In other wordsдругими словаПомогает выразить мысль более четко, просто, понятно.
To put it another wayс другой стороныСиноним «другими словами».
That is to sayто естьПозволяет добавить больше деталей к объяснению.
Moreoverболее тогоПозволяет привести больше аргументов для поддержки точки зрения автора.
What’s moreболее тогоПозволяет привести больше аргументов для поддержки точки зрения автора.
Likewiseподобно этомуПозволяет описать что-то, что подтверждает правоту автора.
Another key thing to rememberеще одна вещь, которую следует запомнитьСиноним фразы «а также», с помощью которого можно добавить дополнительные детали к описанию.
As well asа такжеСмысловой синоним союза «и», который помогает добавить новую информацию.
Coupled withнаряду сИспользуется при рассмотрении двух и более параметров одновременно.
HoweverоднакоИспользуется, чтобы начать фразу, которая противоречит предыдущей.
On the other handс другой стороныИспользуется, чтобы показать мнение, противоположное тому, что только что было высказано, или чтобы рассмотреть вопрос под другим углом.
By contrast/in comparisonнапротив/по сравнениюПомогает рассмотреть сходства и различия сравниваемых объектов.
Despite thisнесмотря на этоИспользуется, чтобы показать мнение, которое существует вопреки предыдущему утверждению.
SignificantlyзначительноИспользуется для обозначения утверждений, смысл которых может быть понят не сразу.

Критерии оценивания эссе на международных экзаменах в таблице


Международные экзамены (на примере IELTS)

ЕГЭ

В данном экзамене эссе, которое является частью раздела «Письмо», оценивается по четырем критериям:

  1. Task Achievement (достижение цели).
  2. Coherence and Cohesion (последовательность и связность).
  3. Lexical Resource (словарный запас).
  4. Grammatical Range and Accuracy (разнообразие, сложность и точность грамматических конструкций).

По каждому из них начисляется от 0 до 9 баллов в зависимости от того, насколько эссе соответствует данному критерию. 0 баллов означает, что экзаменуемый не написал эссе, а 9 баллов – максимально соответствие критерию.

В ЕГЭ по английскому языку сочинение – это задание под номер 40 (С2). Оно оценивается уже по пяти критериям:

  1. Решение коммуникативной задачи.
  2. Организация текста.
  3. Лексика.
  4. Грамматика.
  5. Орфография и пунктуация.

Каждый критерий оценивается по четырехбалльной шкале: от 0 до 4, где 0 баллов означает, что экзаменуемый задание совсем не выполнил, а 4 балла – выполнил идеально.



Список эссе по темам

Поскольку сочинение – это рассуждение автора на интересующую его тему, выбор тем для сочинений не ограничен. Однако на экзаменах по английскому языку количество предлагаемых тем все же обычно лимитировано, и в этом случае лучше заранее попрактиковаться в написании эссе на популярные темы, которые встречаются во многих заданиях. Обычно эти темы касаются культуры, развлечений и повседневной жизни:


Видео о написании эссе на английском языке:



А теперь проверь себя и пройди тест на определение уровня английского языка:





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Примерные темы эссе, по английскому, компьютерная версия TOEFL, темы эссе по английскому языку.

ПРИМЕРНЫЕ ТЕМЫ ЭССЕ  В КОМПЬЮТЕРНОЙ ВЕРСИИ TOEFL .

Topics in the following list may appear in your actual

test. You should become familiar with this list before

you take the computer-based TOEFL test. Remember

that when you take the test you will not have a choice

of topics. You must write only on the topic that is

assigned to you.

 

People attend college or university for many different reasons (for

example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge).

Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific

reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are

the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support

your answer.

 

Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved

the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

answer.

 

It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in

books.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience

with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source

is more important? Why?

 

A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near

your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new

influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory?

Explain your position.

 

If you could change one important thing about your hometown,

what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to

support your answer.

 

How do movies or television influence people’s behavior? Use reasons

and specific examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television

has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use

specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

 

Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big

city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and

details to support your answer.

 

“When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has

nothing to do with success.” Do you agree or disagree with the

quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your

position.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities

should give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities

as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and

examples to support your opinion.

 

Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why

do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and

examples to support your answer.

 

Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people

prefer to prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer? Use

specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Some people believe that university students should be required to

attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be

optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use

specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

 

Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the

qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your

answer.

 

It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built

in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

 

Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a

teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Which do

you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay.

 

What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use

specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are

important.

 

Should governments spend more money on improving roads and

highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public

transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and

details to develop your essay.

 

It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big

city. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to

develop your essay.

 

In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this

phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

 

We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of

people. In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of

a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and

specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important.

 

In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do

you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific

reasons and details.

 

A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. What

do you think this person would like and dislike about living in your

town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your

essay.

 

It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built

in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use

specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be

built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan?

Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should

sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons

and examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television,

newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to

the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and

celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion.

 

Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human

activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to

live. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support

your answer.

 

It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built

in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use

specific reasons and details in your answer.

 

 

Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number

of times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community,

or even climate. Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in

search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to support

your opinion.

 

Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to

save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons

and examples to support your opinion.

 

You have received a gift of money. The money is enough to buy either a

piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend. Which

would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

Businesses should hire employees for their entire lives. Do you agree

or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

answer.

 

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Attending a live

performance (for example, a play, concert, or sporting event) is more

enjoyable than watching the same event on television. Use specific reasons

and examples to support your opinion.

 

Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why

you think it has changed people’s lives.

• automobiles

• bicycles

• airplanes

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specific

reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Learning about the past has no value for those of us living in the

present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and

examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of

technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it

more quickly. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

The expression “Never, never give up” means to keep trying and

never stop working for your goals. Do you agree or disagree with this

statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

answer.

 

Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry

are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you

agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific

reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to be

successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific

reasons and examples to support your choice.

 

Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other

dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

answer.

 

Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to

travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and

examples to support your choice.

 

Some people prefer to get up early in the morning and start the day’s

work. Others prefer to get up later in the day and work until late at night.

Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

choice.

 

What are the important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have

these qualities changed or remained the same over time in your

culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Some people  prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer to work

for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and

details to support your choice.

 

People work because they need money to live. What are some other

reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use

specific examples and details to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face

communication is better than other types of communication, such as

letters, email, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to

support your answer.

 

Some people like to do only what they already do well. Other people

prefer to try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer? Use

specific reasons and examples to support your choice.

 

Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or

chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your

opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples

to support your answer.

 

What change would make your hometown more appealing to people

your age? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

opinion.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most

important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Use specific reasons

and examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should

never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons

and details to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should

never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and

examples to support your answer.

 

A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or

to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should

choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Other

movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of

movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Businesses

should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons

and examples to support your position.

 

Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done. Other

people prefer to take their time and live life at a slower pace. Which do

you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are

as important for adults as they are for children. Use specific reasons

and examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other

adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18

year-old) teenage children. Use specific reasons and examples to support

your opinion.

 

What do you want most in a friend — someone who is intelligent, or

someone who has a sense of humor, or someone who is reliable?

Which one of these characteristics is most important to you? Use

reasons and specific examples to explain your choice.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Most experiences

in our lives that seemed difficult at the time become valuable lessons for

the future. Use reasons and specific examples to support our answer.

 

Some people prefer to work for themselves or own a business.

Others prefer to work for an employer. Would you rather be selfemployed,

work for someone else, or own a business? Use specific

reasons to explain your choice.

 

 

Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and

replace them with modern buildings? Use specific reasons and examples to

support your opinion.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Classmates

are a more important influence than parents on a child’s success in

school. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

If you were an employer, which kind of worker would you prefer to hire:

an inexperienced worker at a lower salary or an experienced worker at a

higher salary? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

Many teachers assign homework to students every day. Do you think

that daily homework is necessary for students? Use specific reasons

and details to support your answer.

 

If you could study a subject that you have never had the opportunity to

study, what would you choose? Explain your choice, using specific reasons

and details.

 

Some people think that the automobile has improved modern life.

Others think that the automobile has caused serious problems. What

is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

answer.

 

Which would you choose: a high-paying job with long hours that would

give you little time with family and friends or a lower-paying job with

shorter hours that would give you more time with family and friends?

Explain your choice, using specific reasons and details.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Grades

(marks) encourage students to learn. Use specific reasons and

examples to support your opinion.

 

Some people say that computers have made life easier and more

convenient. Other people say that computers have made life more complex

and stressful. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to

support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way

to travel is in a group led by a tour guide. Use specific reasons and

examples to support your answer.

 

Some universities require students to take classes in many subjects. Other

universities require students to specialize in one subject. Which is better?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children

should begin learning a foreign language as soon as they start school.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Boys and girls

should attend separate schools. Use specific reasons and examples to

support your answer.

 

Is it more important to be able to work with a group of people on a

team or to work independently? Use reasons and specific examples to

support your answer.

 

Your city has decided to build a statue or monument to honor a famous

person in your country. Who would you choose? Use reasons and specific

examples to support your choice.

 

Describe a custom from your country that you would like people

from other countries to adopt. Explain your choice, using specific

reasons and examples.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Technology has

made the world a better place to live. Use specific reasons and examples to

support your opinion.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Advertising

can tell you a lot about a country. Use specific reasons and examples

to support your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Modern

technology is creating a single world culture. Use specific reasons and

examples to support your opinion.

 

Some people say that the Internet provides people with a lot of

valuable information. Others think access to so much information

creates problems. Which view do you agree with? Use specific

reasons and examples to support your opinion.

 

A foreign visitor has only one day to spend in your country. Where

should this visitor go on that day? Why? Use specific reasons and details

to support your choice.

 

If you could go back to some time and place in the past, when and

where would you go? Why? Use specific reasons and details to

support your choice.

 

What discovery in the last 100 years has been most beneficial for people

in your country? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

choice.

 

 

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Telephones

and email have made communication between people less

personal. Use specific reasons and examples to support your

opinion.

 

If you could travel back in time to meet a famous person from history,

what person would you like to meet? Use specific reasons and examples

to support your choice.

 

If you could meet a famous entertainer or athlete, who would that

be, and why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your

choice.

 

If you could ask a famous person one question, what would you ask?

Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

Some people prefer to live in places that have the same weather or

climate all year long. Others like to live in areas where the weather

changes several times a year. Which do you prefer? Use specific

reasons and examples to support your choice.

 

Many students have to live with roommates while going to school or

university. What are some of the important qualities of a good

roommate? Use specific reasons and examples to explain why these

qualities are important.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Dancing

plays an important role in a culture. Use specific reasons and

examples to support your answer.

 

Some people think governments should spend as much money as

possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to

other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should

spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. Which of these two

opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support

your answer.

 

People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of

modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their

gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress?

Use specific details and examples in your answer.

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should

be paid according to how much their students learn. Give specific

reasons and examples to support your opinion.

 

If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to

an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use

specific reasons and details to explain your choice.

 

You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be

shared by two students. Would you rather have the university assign a

student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own

roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

 

 

Some people think that governments should spend as much money

as possible on developing or buying computer technology. Other

people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more

basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use

specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

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